My Positive Experience Using SSON

Dave Dowhos is an avid Canadian amateur astronomer who started using SSON for his astronomy research projects in December 2013. I helped him get stared in remote astronomy back then and he hasn’t looked back since. He’s very enthusiast and curious about many astronomy subjects. He’s become one of our most regular users since he started out. Because he represents the broad spectrum of citizen scientists discovering the huge benefits of remote astronomy facilities like SSON I asked him if he would write a blog to share his experience with others. He graciously agreed and wrote this blog.

Rich Williams

My Positive Experience Using SSON

by Dave J. Dowhos

I first learned about The Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON) from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). After I researched SSON and its various telescopes I was determined to give it a try and I have never regretted it. SSON has allowed me to investigate and collect astronomical data that I never knew was available to the amateur astronomer.

In  2011 I had just finished monitoring, using a digital camera and a 10 inch Dobsonian telescope, the Supernova SN 2011 fe in M101. The Fall weather, here on the northwestern shores of Lake Superior, was starting to put restrictions on my viewing sessions.  I was not happy with my results and my limiting equipment.

I later started to investigate remote telescopes and it was suggested to me that I should consider using SSON. I soon found that SSON works seamlessly with VPhot at AAVSO as your data is easily processed.

When Supernova SN 2014J in M82 appeared  during January 2014, I was ready.  Using my SSON images and VPhot, I immediately  started to obtain  excellent results .  For me this was a big breakthrough to expand my interests in astronomy.

I must mention that the  online tutorials provided by SSON are very well presented and if you do run into problems then a quick email to Rich Williams will get you quickly back on track. VPhot also has excellent tutorials and you can process all of your work online if you are a member of AAVSO.

I found that  my data using SSON on SN 2014J is in good agreement (Figure 1 and Figure 2) with those determined by other international observatories and individual observers from around the globe. This light curve has already been published in various scientific articles and journals as scientists study these Type 1A supernovae which are used to measure  distances to distant galaxies.

Figure 1

Figure 1 – FITS image of SN 2014J in M82 using the Rigel telescope in SSON

Figure 2

Figure 2 – Blue crosses on the Light Curve show my data processed from SSON Images. I used mostly the V filter (green) but did one Blue filter and one Red filter as checks.

 

I also enjoy studying variable stars of which there are multitude of classes, many of which are difficult to reach with a small backyard telescope. Recently I have been studying Pre-Main Sequence stars also know as YSO’s or Young Stellar Objects. My favorite proto-planetary systems in this category of YSO’s consist of T Tauri stars such as AA Tau, BP Tau, DN Tau, RY Tau and so on. They all have their different physical characteristics making for interesting individual light curves.

While researching a star I often make diagrams of the individual star’s system that I study so I concentrate on quality and knowledge rather than just collecting tons of data on many stars. I feel that I  gain a bigger understanding of our Universe by doing this.

High Mass Binary X-Ray Stars (AR UMa) and Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (AM Her) are also on my “to do list” of variable stars . There is no way that I could reach some of these16th magnitude stars from my back yard . Thanks to SSON I now have this ability.

Below is an digital mage of AM Her that I recently obtained using SSON’s Rigel telescope followed by the results of my analysis using VPhot and the final light curve.

Figure 3

Figure 3 – SSON image of AM HER and surrounding comparative stars.

My analysis of the image data in Figure 3 was done easily using VPhot. The results are shown in Figure 4. You SSON images can be sent directly to VPhot by simply checking the appropriate boxes in the scheduling form on the SSON website.

Figure 4

Figure 4

 

Figure 5

Figure 5 – Resulting light curve for AM Her…my data is in there along with many others

 

My next project using SSON will likely be in the area of spectroscopy as the equipment I personally own is limited to the nearby bright stars.  SSON has spectrographic equipment that can create spectra of objects well beyond the capabilities of many backyard telescopes. It should be interesting.

So if cold temperatures, light pollution or cloudy skies, poor seeing conditions curtail your astronomy interests, or if you want to see deeper into the cosmos then try SSON.  It’s easy to pick your target and submit your request using SSON. Soon after your images are taken you are notified that they are ready for you to download and analyze …. and you can do it all in the comfort of your own home at your convenience.

SSON gives you many opportunities to collect data that can be shared with the scientific community, or digital images that can be processed into beautiful pictures of nebulae, star clusters, galaxies, plus much more. One can even track the orbit within double star systems by processing SSON images on VPhot.

If you want to expand your astronomy horizons then try Sierra Stars Observatory Network . It can take you down many different and interesting paths. I highly recommend it!

About Dave J. Dowhos

Dave Dowhos

Dave lives in Thunder Bay, Ontario on the shore of Lake Superior. Besides being an avid amateur astronomer he is an experienced pilot including T-33 jets in the Reserves. He has a degree mechanical engineering and was one of the first Canadians to be awarded The  Canadian Prime Ministers Award for Teaching Excellence in Science,Technology and Mathematics. In addition Dave received a one year University Certificate in Astronomy and a two year University Certificate in Astrophysics of Galaxies  (University of Central Lancashire).

 

Peter Starr and the Warrumbungle Observatory in Australia Joins SSON

SSON is proud to announce our partnership with Peter Starr and the Warrumbungle Observatory in Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia. We’ve worked with Peter over many months to help him automate the Warrumbungle Observatory to get it ready to serve our SSON users.

The observatory contains a 0.51-meter (20-inch) PlaneWave telescope with a SBIG STL6303E CCD camera with BVRI photometry filters and a clear filter. The observatory is located in one for the finest observing locations near the world renowned Siding Springs Observatory site. You can read more details about the Warrumbungle Observatory on the SSON web site later this weekend when we publish the new content for Warrumbungle scheduling, which opens for SSON users on Monday July 28.

Warrumbungle Observatory is the first SSON Southern Hemisphere observatory site making the entire southern skies available for for science and aesthetic imaging projects.

I asked Peter to tell us a little about himself and his background to you in this blog.

Thanks Peter!

– Rich Williams

Peter Starr standing next to the Warrumbungle telescope

Peter Starr standing next to the Warrumbungle telescope

 

My name is Peter Starr, and before you ask, that is my real name. :-)

I originate from Wagga Wagga in southern NSW in Australia and became interested in the night sky from the age of 5.

Chemistry and the nature of the atom was also a strong passion and I have worked most of my life as an analytical chemist developing and validating test methods for pharmaceutical companies as well as managing and improving their quality systems.

Astronomy and chemistry of the stars was also a strong passion and an opportunity to manage Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran in NSW presented itself. I completed a Masters Degree in Astronomy and setup Warrumbungle Observatory nearby allowing other astronomers to setup their observatories here for remote operation. Their activities range from supernova searches to astrophotography. Their successes have been deep space astrophotograph of the year from The Royal Observatory in Greenwich, an image making the front cover of the NASA calendar, several APODs, and many supernovae confirmations.

My main research interest is photometry of cataclysmic variable stars particularly UGSU and WZ Sge type variables in the attempt to understand the evolution of cataclysmic variables and the nature of accretion disks in superoutbursts of UGSU stars.

I upgraded my own research telescope to a 20 inch PlaneWave Telescope in 2012 which is now fully automated to share with others remotely on the Sierra Stars Observatory Network.

Warrumbungle Observatory complex in Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia

Warrumbungle Observatory complex in Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia

My Experience at the 1999 Torino Scale Meeting in Turin, Italy

by Rich Williams

Kinetic Energy Release in Megatons of TNT for Small to Huge Object NEO Impacts in the Torino Scale

Kinetic Energy Release in Megatons of TNT for Small to Huge NEO Impacts in the Torino Scale

I received a notice on the Minor Planet Mailing List (MPML) today about the 15th anniversary of the creation of the Torino Impact Hazard Scale otherwise known as the Torino Scale for short. The NASA JPL web site subtitles it as Assessing Asteroid And Comet Impact Hazard Predictions In The 21st Century. I attended the June 1999 international conference on near-Earth objects held in Turin Italy that voted to use the “Torino Scale” to describe threats for these objects. At the time I was the vice president of marketing and product development for Torus Technologies (now OMI). I was there to meet a customer and network with other potential customers who wanted to talk with me about remote search/survey projects. I was fascinated by the subject of the conference and for the chance to meet many well-known people in the field who I’d only read about. I was a very small fish in a big pond of experts. I feel privileged to have been at such a historic event with so many fascinating people from around the world.

At the time there was no agreed upon qualitative or quantitative scale to describe a genuine potential threat of a pending impact among astronomers or a good means to express this to the general public. Without such a method interpretation was ad hoc, which could lead to gross exaggeration and misinformation to the general public through the media. In a worse case it could cause unnecessary concern or even panic.

I was fascinated to watch and listen to the people at the conference during the presentations and discussions. There were strong opinions and the discussions sometimes became quite heated.

The Torino Scale uses a 0 to 10 scale rating of the actual threat of near earth objects (NEOs) with 0 indicating the likelihood of an impact as zero and 10 indicating a certain impact capable of creating a global climate catastrophe capable of destroying civilization as we know it. Unlike other quantitative scales such as the Richter scale for earthquake magnitudes or the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, the Torino Scale is a qualitative scale giving a general assessment of a threat and the damage it might cause. This is because of the many unknowns (such as whether the object hits land or water, is a direct or glancing impact, proximity to populated areas, and so on). Also, fortunately, we have very few recent events of damage by such collisions to analyze directly.

The Torino Scale was changed slightly recently from the original one published in 2000 to better describe the attention or response to each category in the scale.

Current Torino Scale

Current Torino Scale

 

First Experience With SSON

Achut Reddy is a recent SSON user with a keen interest in creating the finest aesthetically appealing astronomy images he can. Knowing about the fantastic results Adam Block gets using the Mt. Lemmon 0.8-meter Schumann telescope he chose the instrument for gathering image data to create a composite image of M20. I asked him if he would be willing to write a blog about his experience and results for our SSON users. He agreed and submitted the article in this blog.

Thanks Achut!

– Rich Williams

By Achut Reddy

Like most amateur astronomers, I started out doing astronomy on my own equipment. However having had a chance to work on (and being spoiled by!) larger telescopes than I could ever hope to own myself, located in places with much better seeing than I could ever hope for where I live, I’ve come to realize that remote astronomy using telescopes maintained by others is a far better option and would give me much more impressive results. No more staying up all night in the freezing cold; I could now do astronomy from the comfort of home, in my hot tub :)

I recently signed up with a number of different remote telescope networks, including SSON. I chose as my first target an easy object – M20, the Trifid Nebula. In my opinion, the Trifid is one of the very prettiest objects in the sky, at least in the Northern Hemisphere. It’s full of rich colors and fine details in the dust lanes and gaseous structures. But not all images of M20 succeed in capturing all of that. It would take a certain amount of luck (for good weather and seeing conditions) and careful image processing to get the most out of the data. My goal was to create a beautiful picture that was comparable to some of the best M20 images out there and that I could blow up and hang on my wall.

For my instrument I chose the Schulman 32-inch Telescope at the Mount Lemmon SkyCenter in Arizona. As far as I’m aware, this is the largest telescope available on any public remote astronomy network. This is a fabulously powerful instrument, and capable of truly stunning images.

For my observing plan, I chose an RGB 3-channel model with 16 exposures each of Red @ 300 secs, Blue @ 225 secs, and Green @ 180 secs. M20 is bright enough that I skipped the Luminance channel entirely and relied on the color channels themselves to deliver the detail. I’ll admit I was a bit nervous about submitting my first job on SSON. Was my observing plan a sound one? Did I get the coordinates correct?

I also learned of a few restrictions regarding the telescope parameters for jobs submitted through SSON. Namely:

1. Exposures are unguided
2. All exposures are binned 2×2

The telescope has excellent precision tracking and #1 would not be problem, as long as exposures are kept to 300 seconds or less. But I was concerned about #2. Binning trades off resolution for increased sensitivity. (In retrospect this was probably a good trade-off for this project, but I didn’t know this beforehand. The increased sensitivity resulted in brighter, more vivid colors.)

The web interface to create observing jobs is simple and easy to use, though it is somewhat bare bones (lacking some of the polished user interfaces on the other networks). There were also a number of minor software glitches. However Rich Williams and Adam Block on the Mount Lemmon side were extremely proactive and helpful, and all issues were quickly resolved. There was also no setting to do dithering of images, but Adam graciously enabled this setting for me anyway. So I submitted my job, and crossed my fingers. With SSON, your job is run asynchronously depending on availability of the instrument and seeing conditions, so you don’t know in advance exactly when it will be run.

When I received notification that my job ran, I anxiously downloaded the results and set about to process the images. The images came pre-calibrated so I could skip the Calibration step. Then I followed the usual procedures: Global Registration, Per-channel Normalization, Data Rejection, and Summing, and finally combining the color channels together into one full-color image. Then with the helpful input of an expert graphic designer, Dominic Urbano, I made further refinements in Photoshop to reduce noise, sharpen the details, and improve the colors in the image.  I was blown away by the result; the image was stunning!

Figure 1. M20 - Trifid Nebula [Credit: Achut Reddy]

Figure 1. M20 – Trifid Nebula [Credit: Achut Reddy]

I was especially pleased with the details in the dark dust lanes, the range of colors in the emission and reflection parts of the nebula, and the overall 3D appearance of the puffy clouds. Then, another surprise. While examining the image in detail I noticed a tiny but clear straight line jutting out from one of the clouds near the bottom. Was that an artifact, or could it be… ? I checked the Hubble archive and found what I was looking for – a high resolution close-up of the region in question and sure enough, it was an actual stellar jet! This was the first time I had captured anything like this and it was the icing on the cake:

Figure 2. M20 with jet highlighted [Credit for inset Hubble image: NASA and Jeff Hester (Arizona State University)]

Figure 2. M20 with jet highlighted [Credit for inset Hubble image: NASA and Jeff Hester (Arizona State University)]

 

The jet itself is quite interesting:

“A stellar jet [the thin, wispy object pointing to the upper left] protrudes from the head of a dense cloud and extends three-quarters of a light-year into the nebula. The jet’s source is a very young stellar object that lies buried within the cloud. Jets such as this are the exhaust gases of star formation. Radiation from the massive star at the center of the nebula is making the gas in the jet glow, just as it causes the rest of the nebula to glow.
The jet in the Trifid is a “ticker tape,” telling the history of one particular young stellar object that is continuing to grow as its gravity draws in gas from its surroundings. But this particular ticker tape will not run for much longer. Within the next 10,000 years the glare from the central, massive star will continue to erode the nebula, overrunning the forming star, and bringing its growth to an abrupt and possibly premature end.”
– Hartmut Frommert & Christine Kronberg (SEDS)

The shorter spike pointed about 45° clockwise from the jet is a knot of denser material resisting the stellar wind “blowing” the less dense material around it.

This is certainly my best astronomical image so far. I feel that it met my goals, and it will shortly be mounted on my wall! The experience overall was very satisfying and I look forward to doing more projects with SSON.

Achut Reddy is a Software Engineer in “Silicon Valley”, California. He has several hobbies/interests including astronomy & astrophotography, paleontology, archaeology, languages, scuba diving, and traveling.

 

Founding the Winer Observatory

Mark Trueblood and his Wife Pat founded and operate the Winer Observatory in Arizona. Since the 1980s Mark has been a pioneer in automated/robotic telescope technology. The Rigel Telescope housed in the Winer Observatory is part of SSON. I have been to the observatory a few times and Mark and Pat were gracious hosts when Kathy and I stayed at their house in Sonoita when we last visited Arizona. Because Mark is an expert in setting up observatories for remote operation I asked him if he would write an article about the Winer Observatory for my blog.

Thanks Mark!

–  Rich Williams
__________________

By Mark Trueblood

Winer Observatory in Sonoita, AZ

Winer Observatory in Sonoita, AZ

Introduction

Rich Williams asked me to write a blog article on the founding and operating of Winer Observatory. SSON shares time on the Rigel telescope, owned by the University of Iowa and located at our facility. Details of our observatory and its history can be found on our web site.

Moving to Tucson, Arizona

In the late 1990’s, the Goddard aerospace industry was evolving rapidly, so I decided it was time to move out west as Pat and I had discussed before we married. We had made a few brief trips to the southwest, so we knew what it was like. After looking at jobs at McDonald Observatory (west Texas) and the National Solar Observatory in Sunspot, NM, I finally accepted a job at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO; the US national observatory that operates Kitt Peak) in Tucson in 1990. We moved to Tucson in May 1990, and a few days after our arrival, it hit 117°F, an all-time record. What a welcome to our new home! My first job was with the Tucson part of the National Solar Observatory (then a part of NOAO) on the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) project, and after leading the development of their data archive system, I moved over to the “night side” where I helped astronomer-managers oversee instrument development (mostly infrared instruments), first for the Gemini Observatory, then for NOAO’s 4-meter telescopes in Chile and Kitt Peak.

Founding and Building the Winer Observatory

Shortly after Pat and I married and while still living in the DC area, we founded Winer Observatory in 1983. It was named after Dr. Irvin M. Winer, who had been a professor and mentor at Wesleyan University while I was a graduate student immediately after graduating from college. Irv had a very interesting perspective on life, and was a great mentor and role model who died in middle age of cancer. A friend who graduated from Wesleyan suggested that I name the observatory after Irv.

At the time, Pat was a legal secretary for a large DC law firm, so she handled the paperwork to form a corporation in Maryland and to obtain IRS status as a 501(c)(3) non-profit public charity. She has served tirelessly ever since as a member of the Winer Board of Directors and Secretary-Treasurer of the corporation, doing all the paperwork I don’t have time for, bookkeeping, and serving as a trusted advisor.

While in the DC area, we both went on several lunar occultation and asteroid occultation expeditions with David and Joan Dunham. When we moved to Tucson in 1990, we continued those observations, but eventually we both became disinterested in occultations. During the first two years of living in Tucson, we searched for real estate far enough away from Tucson to enjoy dark skies, but still within a one-hour commute of where we worked. We bought our 20+ acres in Sonoita, in part because it was east of where we worked, so we would not be staring into the Arizona sun during our commute. We hired an architect and built a home for the two of us. We designed an observatory and began construction in 1995 by having 1000 cubic yards of earth removed where we would put our workshop, garage, and control room.

At first, progress was slow as it was limited by cash on hand. One day, I received a call from Prof. Robert Mutel of the University of Iowa who said he heard I was building an observatory in southeast Arizona and would I be interested in hosting his telescope? Shortly thereafter, we received a check from Iowa and another donation, so work proceeded more rapidly. Our original plan was that we would build a 25-foot square observatory on the south end of the 25 x 50 foot workshop, with the roof rolling on rails on top of the workshop walls. When Iowa called, we extended the observatory to 25’ wide by 35’ long on the drawings we used for our building permit. When the workshop was done, we decided to make the observatory 25 x 50 feet to accommodate more telescopes. We are now pretty much full, so that was a wise decision. With the 25 x 50 foot roof rolling to the north over a building of the same size, the northernmost pads do not have a view of Polaris for polar alignment. Everything we do for the first time, it seems, we know how to do so much better if we only had a second chance!

Pat and I both did some manual construction work on the observatory – I cut and bent about a mile (no kidding!) of #5 (5/8”) rebar, among other tasks. The contractor we hired was patient with us throughout this phase, and in July 1997, a crane hoisted wall frames and trusses into place for the rolloff roof. A few weeks of completing the welding and another month or so, and siding and decking covered the roof. During this time, I used lunch hours and the machine shop at work to make parts for the roof drive. I obtained donations of a large worm gear drive, drive chain, idlers, U-joints, pillow blocks, 3-phase inverters, and other items from Boston Gear, and of 25-pound crane rail and double flanged wheels from other vendors. I then built and installed the drive system myself – if this critical item didn’t work, I wanted only myself to blame.

I had things pretty far along and was attaching the drive chain to the roof late one night from the truck from Iowa showed up with their telescope. Perfect timing! A crane placed the Iowa 20-inch alt-az telescope on its pad the next morning, we routed various cables in the cable trough, and soon the telescope was moving under its own power. In September 1997, we officially began operations. The Iowa scope was joined by Tenagra Observatory’s supernova search a year later, then by Washington University in St. Louis, which had two telescopes at our site for several months, then one was shipped to India while the other remained here until 2010. We have also temporarily hosted a telescope and homemade spectrograph from Spectrashift.com a couple times while they were becoming the first amateur-led group to detect an exoplanet by the Doppler shift method. A complete history of the telescopes that are or were installed in the observatory is on our web site under History.

Rigel Telescope Installed in the Winer Observatory

Rigel Telescope Installed in the Winer Observatory

In 2002, the University of Iowa replaced their self-built 20” alt-az telescope with a Torus Technologies (now Optical Mechanics, Inc.) 14.5” fork mounted equatorial telescope. This is the telescope that SSON observers use. All telescopes are robotic (pre-programmed and controlled by computers) as opposed to remotely operated in real time by humans, due to limited Internet bandwidth in our remote location. Our site is miles away from cable TV or even DSL Internet – we pay hundreds each month for very limited bandwidth, while city dwellers enjoy 5 times our bandwidth for 1/50 the cost. Such is life in the boonies. We tried satellite connections a couple times, but they were very slow, almost equally expensive, and the time delay to go up and back to/from geostationary orbit made even simple remote login to a computer to do routine maintenance impossible, and some communications protocols just refused to work with such long delays.

We now serve four customers (University of Iowa, Ohio State University, a university in Poland, and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) and Pat has her 14-inch Meade mounted on a Paramount ME for public outreach and her own visual observing. Visitors are welcome with advance notice so you know we’re here. Come and check us out if you are in the area.

About Mark Trueblood

Mark Trueblood

Mark Trueblood

Born: February 23, 1948 Cincinnati, Ohio

High School: Finneytown HS, Cincinnati, Ohio

College: Brown University, BA and BS in Physics, cum laude 1971

Graduate School: University of Maryland, MS in Astronomy 1983

Research Interests: Near Earth Objects, Minor Planet Astrometry and Photometry, Occultations of Stars by Minor Planets, Extra-Solar Planet Discovery

Read Texereau’s book on telescope making at the age of 11, ordered a mirror making kit from Edmund Scientific, and made a 6-inch f/8 mirror at the age of 12.

Employed 1974-1990 in various aerospace companies in the Washington, DC area, first as a computer programmer, later as a project and program manager.

Program Manager at Ford Aerospace Corporation on the Hubble Space Telescope control center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1995-1998.

Employed by Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA, Inc) 1990-2012, first as a programmer and systems engineer for the National Solar Observatory Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) project to design and develop a data archive capable of cataloging and storing 5 TB of data.

In 1994, became the Project Engineer in AURA’s National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) United States Gemini Program, overseeing the construction of instruments for the Gemini Observatory’s two 8-m telescopes by US teams. In 2010, became Project Manager for various optical and IR instruments for NOAO telescopes.

Since 1983, the Scientific Director of the Winer Observatory, founded to perform scientific research and public education in astronomy and light pollution, and just to have a whole lot of fun.

Mr. Trueblood is a member of the American Astronomical Society (Division for Planetary Sciences), International Dark-sky Association, International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry group, International Occultation Timing Association, Friends of the Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, and the Tucson Amateur Astronomy Association.

In 2001, the International Astronomical Union named minor planet number 15522 “Trueblood” in his honor.

The Sierra Stars Observatory Transmission Grating Spectrograph (TGS)

By Rich Williams

Introduction

I spent the last several months testing and experimenting with the transmission grating spectrograph (TGS) filters I installed on the Sierra Stars Observatory system. The system has two 600-line TGS blazed 50mm x 50mm gratings installed in two of the seven filter positions in the SSO filter wheel. One TGS has a plate with a slit that obscures all the light going to the CCD camera except for a 3mm-wide slot that blocks all light going to the camera except for what comes through the slot. This enables you to isolate the spectrum light from the target object (in the majority of cases) without light “polluting” the data from other nearby stars. The TGS without a slit enables you to potentially get spectra from multiple objects as long as there is a reasonable amount of space between objects to not overlap (and pollute) the spectrum light from other sources. In less crowded fields the TGS without a slit will work just as well. The SSO TGS system is now available to SSON users to schedule images.

Getting Your TGS Data

You schedule images to run on the TGS just as you do for “regular” SSON images selecting objects from our extensive online catalogs or setting your own coordinates for objects. You also set the amount of exposure time you want for each image. However, you need to make some extra decisions for TGS images to get acceptable results. This requires some learning on your part. I explain what you need to do and be aware of in the SSO TGS User’s Guide, which you can also read and download on the SSON website.

Now to the fun part. I’m going to show you some results I achieved using the SSON TGS to give you an idea what you might try on your own. Instead of demonstrating spectrum profiles of Vega (which is a standard for star spectrum calibration) and other commonly shown spectrum profiles I will use objects that show interesting information about the chemical makeup of unusual stars and the planet Uranus. For each case I describe a little about the object and specifics about the images used to create the spectrum profiles. I used MaxIM DL to process the FITS image data and RSpec to process the resulting images to create the spectra profiles. The profiles are all carefully calibrated using a non-linear process to get the greatest precision and then normalized. If this doesn’t mean anything to you right now, don’t worry. It will make more sense after you learn more about doing spectroscopy.

Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis)

Betelgeuse is the brightest star in the constellation Orion. It is distinctly red in contrast to most of the other blue stars in Orion. It is a red supergiant star and very bright at approximately magnitude 0.4 (it is a variable star that can vary between 0.2 and 1.2 magnitude). By most estimates the star is at least ten times more massive than the Sun. The star is running out of hydrogen and as a result is nearing the end of its life. It’s evolved outside of the main sequence of “normal” hydrogen-burning stars and swelled to become a supergiant star. In the not too distant future (by astronomical standards) it will likely explode as a supernova and end up as a neutron star or black hole.

Spectroscopy of Betelgeuse

I created the spectrum profile in Figure 1 from a FITS image that is a composite of four images optimized with focus offsets that span the frequency range from 4000 to 8000 angstroms that were median combined (stacked) using MaxIM DL before creating a spectrum profile using RSpec.

Betelgeuse-Spectrum

Figure 1. – Betelgeuse Spectrum Profile and Image

I used four 1-second exposure images with focus offsets of 200, 400, 600, and 800 to achieve higher resolution throughout the spectrum. The SSO TGS User’s Guide explains what focus offsets are for and how to select values appropriate for the frequencies you want to best resolve. I used the software program MaxIM DL to stack the four images together using a median combine process. Figure 1 shows a cropped portion of the image.

The Betelgeuse spectrum profile shows many prominent absorption lines of heavy metals and even molecules such as titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO). These molecules can exists in the star because the stars atmosphere cooled as the star swelled into its red supergiant phase. At higher temperatures the oxygen atoms would not be able to form stable bonds with the metal atoms to form molecules.

AG Pegasi

The star AG Pegasi (located in the constellation Pegasus) is an interesting binary star system comprised of a red giant star about 2.5 times more massive than the sun and a white dwarf approximately 0.6 the mass of the sun. The star system is now about magnitude 9. Astronomers have observed the star for over 150 years and in that short period (very short by astronomical standards) the binary star system has undergone a major transformation. Gas from the red giant star is being captured and accreted around the hotter white dwarf star. This has been happening for thousands of years. Since the beginning of the 20th century astronomers observed a surprising and swift transformation in the spectrum of the star system. As the hotter white dwarf accumulated hydrogen and began burning it the spectrum of the star transformed from types A to B to O and finally to the Wolf-Rayet spectrum it displays today. This is a star worth monitoring.

Spectroscopy of AG Pegasi

The predominate spectrum of AG Pegasi comes from the intense UV light from the white dwarf, which now has the spectrum of a Wolf-Rayet star. The UV light excites and ionizes the gases in the accreting material causing hydrogen to emit light at specific wavelengths. The hydrogen Balmer lines show up prominently in the spectrum of the star, especially the H-alpha line in the spectrum profile in Figure 2. Emission lines appear brighter than the continuum of the spectrum and display as upward “spikes” in the spectrum profile. The H-alpha line stands out strikingly in the image of the spectrum.

AG Pegasi-Spectrum

Figure 2. – AG Pegasi Spectrum Profile and Image

I used four 60-second exposure images with focus offsets of 100, 300, 500, and 700 to achieve higher resolution throughout the spectrum and median combined them to produce the spectrum image in Figure 2.

WR 136

The star WR 136 is a 7.5 magnitude Wolf-Rayet star located in the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888) in the constellation Cygnus. It is about 15 times more massive and 250,000 times brighter than the Sun with a surface temperature about 70,000 degrees. Wolf-Rayet stars emit a massive amount of their gas continually generating a very strong stellar wind. This creates a huge expanding shell of gas that surrounds the star. They are among the largest and rarest of stars in our galaxy. The stars intense UV radiation excites the gas in the surrounding shell causing the atoms to emit light a specific wavelengths. The star has a spectral classification of WN6(h). The N indicates that the spectrum of the star emits nitrogen lines and the h indicates it has strong hydrogen emission lines.

Spectroscopy of WR 136

The spectrum profile of WR 136 in Figure 3 shows strong emission lines for hydrogen and nitrogen that show up prominently in the spectrum image.

WR-136-Spectrum

Figure 3. – WR 136 Spectrum Profile and Image

I used four 60-second exposure images with focus offsets of 100, 300, 500, and 700 to achieve higher resolution throughout the spectrum and median combined them to produce the spectrum image in Figure 3.

SU Andromeda

The star SU Andromeda is an irregular pulsating supergiant carbon star that has an approximate magnitude of 8.5. The atmosphere of carbon stars contain more carbon than oxygen because it is cool enough for carbon to combine with oxygen to form carbon monoxide (CO). This process consumes all the free oxygen leaving an excess of free carbon in the atmosphere. This creates a series of dominate carbon spectral lines called Swan bands. Helium fusion in the star also produces other metals such as barium and strontium that show up in the spectrum as well.

Spectroscopy of SU Andromeda

The spectrum profile of SU Andromeda in Figure 4 shows the characteristic carbon absorption lines of the Swan band as well as other trace elements.

SU Andromeda-Spectrum

Figure 4. – SU Andromeda Spectrum Profile and Image

I used four 60-second exposure images with focus offsets of 100, 300, 500, and 700 to achieve higher resolution throughout the spectrum and median combined them to produce the spectrum image in Figure 4.

Uranus

Unlike stars planets do not emit their own visible light. The light we see is sunlight reflected back to us. However, the returning reflected light is not the same as the light that left the sun. A planet’s surface and atmosphere absorb some of the light at various wavelengths before reflecting it back. This soaked up light shows up as absorption bands in the spectrum of the planet. The thick atmosphere of Uranus contains a large amount of methane as well as ammonia, hydrogen, helium and other gases. Methane produces strong abortion bands that show up in the spectrum of the planet.

Spectroscopy of Uranus

The spectrum profile of Uranus in Figure 5 clearly shows the methane absorption bands.

Uranus-SpectrumI used three 20-second exposure images with focus offsets of 400, 600, and 800 to resolve the methane lines and median combined them to produce the spectrum image in Figure 5.

Conclusion

I took the spectrum images over a period of several months as I set up and tested the TGS system. Starting out, my knowledge of spectroscopy and spectroscopes was limited. I’ve read a lot, researched a lot, and got a lot of help and advice from Dr. Robert Mutel. Robert installed the TGS system on the Rigel telescope in Arizona, which is part of SSON. As far as I know it was the first remote TGS spectroscopy system made publicly available for general users. I modeled the SSO TGS after Robert’s system as closely as possible. Besides explaining how a TGS system works and how to set them up he did many of the calculations I used writing the SSO TGS User’s manual and setting up the system.

I’m fascinated by how much information you can dig out of a star’s spectrum. It tells you a stars temperature, what it’s made of, how far its’ evolved, and more. There are many scientific investigations and projects you can do with this type of spectroscopy capability. Our SSON users are quite resourceful and curious. I expect to see some interesting “thinking outside the box” spectroscopy work by them. I’ve got some ideas of my own I want to work on.

Capabilities of the Mt. Lemmon SkyCenter Telescopes

By Adam Block

The University of Arizona’s Mt. Lemmon SkyCenter observatories, including the 0.8-meter Schulman Telescope and the 0.6-meter Phillips Telescope, sit atop Mount Lemmon, Arizona at 9,157ft. They are on the site of Steward Observatory’s Catalina complex and are adjacent to the telescopes operated by the famous Catalina Sky Survey astronomers. The location of these SkyCenter observatories creates a laminar air flow when the normal dry air weather pattern is from West to East. This results in excellent seeing. The SkyCenter observatories regularly measure 1 arc-second resolution in exposures that are 10 to 15 minutes in length. The overall observed site average is less than 1.5 arc-seconds. Unlike like a seeing monitor, which measures “instantaneous” seeing using very short exposures, stellar profiles (FWHM) in the long duration exposures are the convolution of guiding, optics and seeing. Only if all three of these are simultaneously “good” will sharp resolution result. However, resolving power isn’t everything and within the world of amateur astronomy these telescopes are big “light buckets”. Finally, although the glow of Tucson is significant to the south, the sky is dark enough to detect 21st magnitude asteroids in a few minutes under typical conditions.

0.8-meter Schulman Telescope

The Schulman telescope was designed for superior imaging capabilities from its inception. It is the largest telescope of its kind in the world specifically designed as a dedicated public outreach instrument. Many of the telescope specifications (mechanical to optical components and design elements) are responsible for the excellent delivered image quality (DIQ), especially for astrophotography. The telescope’s focal ratio is f/7, which is reasonably fast considering its aperture. Data acquired using this telescope for queued observing must meet the following minimum criteria to be considered “good:”

  • Images must be in-focus, taken through the correct filter and the resulting stellar profiles are less than 2 arc-seconds.
  • The commanded coordinates must be less than 2 arc-minutes from the center of the field.
  • Time critical observations must occur within 5 minutes of the specified time (as part of automated observing).
  • The weighting factor for a normalized set of equal exposure images must be greater than 0.5. Measured weights greater than 0.75 are considered good. This criterion takes care of data that are affected by high thin clouds, unintended obstructions (e.g. the Dome) and other issues.
  • All biases, darks, and flats necessary to calibrated the data are provided. Flats are refreshed frequently (if not nightly) depending on the mode of telescope operation.

Figure 1 is a recent image from a scheduled SSON automated observing run that highlight the representative image quality of the 0.8-meter telescope,

Figure 1

Figure 1 — Data taken as part of scheduled (SSON) operations. 300-second unguided exposure with resolution 1.2 arc-seconds.

 

This image in Figure 1 was taken during an observing run for the Sierra Stars Observatory Network (SSON), which stipulates the data is acquired binned 2×2 with unguided exposures up to 5 minutes in length. This raw (unprocessed) image shows that in five minutes the DIQ is within the realm of elite observatories and equipment. The telescope’s friction drive system provides high-precision tracking to produce high quality images with round stars. High-precision optical encoders enable accurate tracking within hundredths of an arc-second over long periods. The system has no periodic error or measurable hysteresis.

The 0.8-meter Schulman telescope acquires images with a SBIG STX 16803 CCD camera. The chip in our instrument has been a wonderful workhorse for the past few years. The camera’s CCD chip has good sensitivity, low noise (for a peltier cooled instrument), and no cosmetic issues. The chip does have an anti-blooming gate (ABG) which is useful for aesthetic imaging. However, data acquired for scientific measurement must be kept within the linear range (0-40,000 counts).

Because the Schulman Telescope is used for public outreach and aesthetic imagery, we installed broadband, 65mm RGB filters (AstroDon GenII), a Clear filter, and a 4.5nm H-alpha filter for our filter wheel. Each filter has IR rejection.

0.6-meter Phillips Telescope

Most of the information above in terms of DIQ applies to the 0.6-meter Phillips Telescope. However, there are a few differences between the two telescopes. First, and perhaps surprisingly, the optics of the Phillips telescope are even better than the Schulman system. The field is considerably flatter (fewer aberrations towards the edges of the field) with very sharp stars. It was only after the installation of the 0.8-meter that we truly appreciated the Phillips telescope’s optical performance (the Schulman telescope is extraordinary- but the Phillips is one of those special systems…)

Due to the smaller aperture, the Phillips telescope collects a little less light per unit time than the 0.8-meter telescope. It is also slightly slower at f7.8. However, this does yield almost identical plate scales between the two telescopes. The Phillips telescope has a worm-gear driven mount with periodic error correction actively applied through a model.

Currently the Phillips telescope uses an SBIG STL 11000 CCD camera package. However, before the end of 2014 the SkyCenter will install a STX 16803 CCD camera on the telescope. The telescope’s filter wheel has BVRI filters and a 4.5nm H-alpha filter. The filter set is designed with scientific photometry projects in mind. Unlike the Schulman Telescope, the Phillips telescope’s primary mission is to serve as a remotely controlled and automated system. The Schulman Telescope usually has on-site programs that use the facility until 3 hours after sunset. However, the Phillips telescope is often ready for use once it is dark.

About Adam

Adam Block

Adam Block

Adam’s life-long goal to be an astronomer began at the early age of 4. He specifically selected the University of Arizona to continue his pursuits and graduated with a B.S. in Astronomy and Physics in 1996. He spent the next nine years developing and administering public outreach programs at the National Observatory (Kitt Peak). Since 2007 his dream to create foremost public outreach experiences in astronomy is being realized with a return to the university through the Steward Observatory and the College of Science at the Mount Lemmon SkyCenter.

Adam is most well-known for his abilities to speak and communicate difficult astronomy concepts using straightforward, creative methods. Over the past 15+ years he has hosted many thousands of evening sessions for the public. He strives to maintain quality programs that are fresh and exciting with unflagging enthusiasm.

He is also recognized around the world as a leading astrophotographer. The images he produces as part of public outreach programs are published in magazines, books, posters, and widely on the internet. His images have graced NASA’s “Astronomy Picture of the Day” website more than 70 times. Both amateur and professional astronomers use these images as standard references of quality and precision. In 2012 Adam received the prestigious “Hubble Award” from the Advanced Imaging Conference- one of the highest awards for work in astrophotography recognized around the world. In 2013 the Greenwich Royal Observatory honored him as astrophotographer of the year for best deep space astrophotography. This year Adam began writing monthly columns in Astronomy magazine about image processing

Figure 2

Figure 2 — An image of the Crab Nebula featuring sub arc-second resolution.
Credit Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/ University of Arizona

 

 

 

Beautiful Image of New Supernova in M82

M82_SN_Arrow

This morning Adam Block, Manager of the Mt. Lemmon Sky Center observatories, sent me a message with a beautiful image of M82 that shows the bright supernova. Adam is a world-renowned astrophotographer who has won many awards for his work. He used the Mt. Lemmon Sky Center 0.81-meter telescope to take the image data to create his LRGB composite images. The powerful telescope is part of SSON and is available to all users for their own imaging and research projects.

Here is Adam’s message to me this morning verbatim, which includes the links to his latest images:

“here is my “press release” (meaning I send this to a small group of interested people)

Supernova!

I apologize if the following isn’t terribly well written… it is now quite early in the morning having just completed acquiring and processing data on M82 and its new supernova! It isn’t a perfect image (quick put together)… but here is what I got:

http://skycenter.arizona.edu/gallery/Galaxies/M82_Supernova

(click on the image for a larger version, click on the thumbnail for a version with an arrow!)

The direct links to the images are:

http://skycenter.arizona.edu/sites/skycenter.arizona.edu/files/M82_SN.jpg

and with the ARROW:

http://skycenter.arizona.edu/sites/skycenter.arizona.edu/files/M82_SN_Arrow.jpg

I look forward to showing guests to the SkyCenter a view of this through the telescope. Keep in mind this image is stretched in its brightness; the supernova is considerably brighter than any part of the galaxy and as it brightens it may outshine billions of stars in M82.


http://skycenter.arizona.edu
http://mirrorlab.as.arizona.edu
—-
Caelum videre iussit, et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.
He bid them look at the sky and lift their faces to the stars.
–Ovid, Metamorphoses 1. 85-8″

Trying Remote Astronomy with the Sierra Stars Observatory Networks

Dr. David Galbraith started using SSON in April of 2013. He is the Head of Science at the Royal Botanical Gardens in Burlington, Ontario Canada and an active member of the Hamilton Amateur Astronomers (HAA). David wrote an article for the January issue of the  HAA online magazine Event Horizon with the title: Trying Remote Astronomy with the Sierra Stars Observatory Network.

It is a well-written and informative description of David’s experience using SSON and why he chose our network for his remote astronomy projects. If you are interested in trying out remote astronomy and want to read about one of our user’s experience trying out SSON, you can read David’s article here on the HAA web site.

– Rich Williams

Analyzing Comet Lovejoy

By Rich Williams

Figure 1

Figure 1 Comet Lovejoy

Last night I was able to fit in an hour’s worth of imaging time to get some data on Comet Lovejoy (also called C/2013 R1) on the SSO telescope just before the end of twilight. The comet is quite bright and were it not for all the media coverage of Comet ISON, which reaches perihelion on Thanksgiving days two day from now, Comet Lovejoy would probably be getting much more attention.

I scheduled six 240-second images without a filter (clear) and six 120-second images for B, V, and R filters. My original intent was to combine the data to create a LRGB composite color image (Figure 1). However, using various image processing techniques to analyze the image data I found some very interesting structure in the coma and tail of the comet.

One of the difficulties in working with comet image data is the great range of brightness between the area near the coma and the outer edges of the tail. Standard stretching of the images in various settings from very low to very high helps see more, but still a lot of the detail in the data is overpowered and hidden. I use MaxIm DL to analyze this type of data. Two image processing techniques that really help bring out fine detail in comet structure are digital development and rotational gradient filters.

Digital development processing does a nice job showing both bright areas and dim areas in objects like comets simultaneously. Figure 2 is a 24-minute total exposure (six four-minute stacked images) of the comet processed with digital development. It shows a lot of fine interesting detail around the coma and the tail. Most of the detail is not visible in raw data because it is overpowered.

Lovejoy-C-digital

Figure 2. Digital development processing of Comet Lovejoy.

A rotational gradient filter enhances low contrast structure radiating around the coma and in the tail. Figure 3 is a 12-minute total exposure (six two-minute stacked images) taken with an R filter. I then created the movie below from the six images processed with the rotational gradient filter to see if I could discern any movement in the comet’s structure. The series of images were taken between 12:43 and 13:11 UT on 11-26-2013 UT date. In just under a half hour span I didn’t expect to see much, if any, movement. To my surprise the comet is very dynamic and the undulating of the tail in such a short span of time is readily apparent.

Lovejoy-R-rotational

Comets are fascinating objects to observe. They change considerably from day to day and, as I found, even from minute to minute. I look forward to doing more of this work on Comet Lovejoy and of course Comet ISON, if it survives its close encounter with the sun on Thanksgiving Day.

 

Comet Lovejoy dynamics over a 29-minute period

Comet Lovejoy dynamics over a 29-minute period